Optometry and vision Science oversee the present progression in vision optics, eye, and vision science and optometry. Optometry is a health care profession that involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities as well as the medical diagnosis and management of eye disease. Traditionally, the field of optometry began with the primary focus of correcting refractive error through the use of spectacles. Vision science is a broad and growing field. It encompasses numerous disciplines, such as anatomy, physiology, pathology, molecular, cellular, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience, optics, psychophysics, eye movements, perception, color vision, engineering, and computational vision, among others.